External Jugular Vein
External jugular, a late Latin word which means , relating or near the neck or throat.The External jugular vein that passes down the sides of the neck, posturing to the subclavian vein external collecting blood from within the skull. It can drain blood from the face and neck and transfer it towards the heart. There are three jugular veins human body has, external, internal and anterior, these are on duty for the drainage of the blood around the head and neck. The tributaries of external jugular veins are responsible for the supply of blood in external face, it is made up with two other veins, posterior vein and Retro mandibular vein.these two veins associate to the Mandible in a posterior position and lower to the forming jugular vein to our outer ear.
After formation, the jugular vein slops down the neck within the fascia, which runs to a muscle named Sternocleidomastoid. The jugular external vein receives the tributary veins when its on the track around the neck, these tributaries is posterior jugular, transverse cervical and supra scapular veins. In case of any accident, an injury, a sharp slash, jugular vein’s Lumen is become open and air will be drained into the vein, as a result it can stop blood circulation through the right atrium.
Internal Jugular Vein
The internal jugular vein lies down and carries blood from the skull and neck, however internal jugular veins are much larger than the external jugular veins.in case of heart failure, we can see the jugular veins, jugular veins provide latest update of the central venous pressure, whether the heart is failing or it will be kept up with some efforts. Any injury to the vein can lead to some life threatening results if we are late or doctors do not repair it with a surgery. Because it is not too far from the upper skin so beware of any minor slashes like glass or a knife. If the external jugular stops its functioning , our head will be filled with blood and cause serious edema of the face or neck.
External jugular vein is also called superficial veins, are also signal for a surgeon to avoid any error which can cause extra bleeding when he is doing head and neck surgery. It is also used in prehospital diagnoses when doctor unable to find another vein for venous access need, commonly in cardiac problems.
There are 2 other valves located at the entrance of the external jugular vein, do not stop the backward flow of blood , this area between the valves called Sinus. This is surprising that some people have double external jugular veins, if you want to study it, placing the patient, hold the head opposite side and spread the light with a torch. Because we are not studying about vessels that involves the heart blood pumping and not visible in the neck. External jugular vein provides a good quantity of venous pressure.
The external jugular vein can also play a role in earlier emergency operations, and for fluid therapy.