Sinus Infection

Sinus is a swelling or inflammation of the tissue lining sinuses. Usually our sinuses are air filled, but sometimes they become blocked and filled with fluid in which various types of viruses and bacteria can grow and cause severe infection. There are some conditions that cause blocked sinus such as allergic rhinitis, common cold, deviated septum and nasal polyps.

Different Types of Sinus Infection

  1. Acute Sinus Infection: sudden symptoms of stuffy and runny nose and facial pain that does not go away after 2 weeks. It typically ends after 4 weeks or may be less.
  2. Chronic Sinus Infection: in this case, the infection lasts 8 weeks or longer.
  3. Sub-acute sinus infection: this condition refers to inflammation that does not go away and lasts 4-8 weeks.
  4. Recurrent sinus infection: In this case, people suffer from several attacks within a year.

Symptoms of Acute Sinus Infection

Some of the main symptoms of acute sinus are;

  • Nasal Stuffiness
  • Facial Pain
  • Loss of smell
  • Cough and congestion
  • Fever
  • Bad breath
  • Fatigue
  • Dental pain
  • Presence of thick nasal discharge

Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Sinus infection:

  • Facial Congestion or fullness
  • Pus in the nasal cavity
  • Nasal blockage
  • Fever
  • Post nasal drainage
  • Bad breath
  • Headache
  • Dental pain
  • Fatigue

Diagnosis of Sinus Infection

Your primary care doctor reviews your symptoms in order to diagnose sinus and give you a physical exam. This examination mainly includes pressing and feeling your sinus for tenderness. He may also tap your teeth to investigate if you have inflamed paranasal sinus. In order to assess the other possible causes of sinus infection, doctors use different diagnostic tests which may include nasal endoscopy, mucus culture, allergy testing, X-rays and blood work.

Treatment of Sinus Infection

Acute Sinus Infection

In case of simple sinus infection, your doctor may treat you with decongestents such as steam inhalations. Using nonprescription decongestant nasal drop may also provide relief from symptoms. However it is not advisable to use these medications for a longer time without recommendation.

Usually 4-5 days are enough to use these medications or otherwise they will cause congestion to increase. Antibiotics to treat acute sinus infection are given for 10-14 days. With treatment, the symptoms of sinus infection usually go away and you can stop using antibiotics.

Chronic Sinus Infection

Sinus congestion may be alleviated with warm moist air. Inhaling steam or vaporizer may also help relieving the symptoms of sinus infection. Some people use warm compresses to relieve the pain in sinuses and nose. For home use, saline nose drops are also helpful or your doctor may prescribe decongestant nasal drops or sprays that might be effective in relieving the symptoms.

However, these treatments should not be continued for a longer period of time. sometimes doctor prescribe oral steroids or antibiotics to treat chronic sinus. There are some home remedies as well that might help you relieving symptoms such as inhaling steam from a pan of boiling water and drinking warm water.

What is Leukemia

What is Leukemia?

Leukemia is a form of cancer that starts from the blood. It is basically the cancer of blood forming tissues in our body consisting of bone marrow and lymphatic system. The blood forming tissues and cells has different jobs to do in our body. Stem cells develop in red blood cells and platelets. Platelets are responsible for destroying the bacteria and help our body to fight against infections but if the blood vessels are damaged, the platelets starts forming blood clots in order to stop the vessels from bleeding. Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to all the tissues of the body.

The lymphatic system is responsible for developing the lymphocytes which are a type of white blood cells. These are figures that produce antibodies to fight against infections. Leukemia develops in a body where blood stem cells in the bone marrow start to change and cannot behave or grow normally. The abnormal stem cells are called leukemia cells and with the passage of time, the leukemia cells stop the normal cells to function properly.

Types of Leukemia

There are different types of leukemia which are categorized according to development of leukemia caused by a certain type of cell. In addition, types of leukemia further grouped into the categories based on the timeframe in which leukemia grows. However, there are four main types of Leukemia;

  1. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
  2. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
  3. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  4. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of Leukemia may occur in patients due to other health conditions as well. So, it is important that one should consult the doctor or specialist in order to confirm the specific health condition by discussing symptoms in detail. Signs and symptoms of acute and chronic leukemia are altered to some extent. Signs and symptoms of leukemia vary according to the type of disease.

Chronic leukemia shows up no symptoms or very few signs that it becomes difficult for the patient or doctor to diagnose the disease. Signs and symptoms of chronic leukemia develop very slowly and patients are mostly unaware of the disease until the diagnosis on a blood test.

Patients usually feel nothing other than undefined illness. While acute leukemia which grows faster than chronic leukemia shows up symptoms like flu and fever but the disease attacks in days after showing flu-like signs. Commonly, patients of leukemia experience signs and symptoms including:

  • Fatigue that does not go away
  • Chills or Fever
  • Flu
  • Anemia
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Paleness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lungs infections
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Cold sores
  • Gums infection
  • Sore throat
  • Bleeding or easy bruising
  • Bleeding from nose
  • Red spots on skin
  • Pain in bones or bone tenderness
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Night sweats
  • Changes in vision
  • Feeling of fullness or abdominal discomfort
  • Sores in the eyes
  • Swollen or enlarged lymph nodes
  • Swelling of the testicles
Autoimmune Diseases

 What are Autoimmune diseases?

Autoimmune disease refers to a process in which our immune system becomes less active or over active. When immune system becomes over active, it attacks body’s own tissues and damages them. While less active immune system leads to a reduced ability of our body to fight abnormalities and infections. The immune system starts to produce antibodies that may attack our own body rather than fighting infections and abnormalities. In case of over active immune system, autoimmune diseases are usually treated focusing on decreasing over activity of immune system.

Some of the common Autoimmune Diseases

Some examples of autoimmune diseases are

  1. Lupus

Patients with Lupus mostly develop autoimmune antibodies that can potentially adjoin the tissue in our body. The blood cells, lungs, nerves, kidneys and joints are mostly damaged in Lupus.

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis

In patients with rheumatoid Arthritis, their immune system produces antibodies that attach themselves to the joint linings. The cells of immune system then attack the joints, causing pain, swelling and inflammation in the joints. Joints become damaged in a long run. Read more about  Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Chronic Connective Tissue Disease

  1. Multiple Sclerosis

This disease damages the nervous system of a patient. In this condition of autoimmune diseases the immune system attacks our body’s nerve cells causing weakness, blindness, pain, poor coordination and severe muscle spasms.

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

One of the most frustrating autoimmune diseases is Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD). In this condition, our immune system attacks the intestine lining which results in episodes of diarrhea, urgent bowel movements, pain in the abdomen, rectal bleeding, and fever and weight loss. Some other conditions such as Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative Colitis are major forms of this disease.

  1. Type I Diabetes

Type I diabetes is another autoimmune disease in which antibodies of Immune system attacks and further destroys cells in pancreas, young people with type I diabetes need insulin injections to survive this disease. check for details: ?

  1. Guillain Barre Syndrome

In patients with Gullain-Barre Syndrome, the immune system destroys the nerves responsible for controlling muscles mostly in the legs and some times in the upper body and arms. The result is severe weakness.

  1. Grave’s disease

People with Grave’ Disease have excessive amount of thyroid hormones because the immune system produces stimulating anti bodies that fuel the thyroid gland to release excessive thyroid hormones into the blood stream, a condition called hyperthyroidism. Weight loss, bulging eyes, irritability, weakness and rapid heartbeat are common signs of Grave’s Disease.

  1. Hashimoto’s Thyrodities

The immune system in this autoimmune disease produces antibodies that attack thyroid gland and slowly destroys the cells responsible for producing thyroid hormones. It causes reduction in the hormone levels and lately develops hypothyroidism. People mostly feel fatigued, constipation, weight gain, dry skin, sensitivity to cold and depression.

  1. Vasculitis:

This is another type of autoimmune diseases in which blood vessels are attacked and damaged by our own immune system. Vasculitis can affect any part of the body, therefore, symptoms may differ broadly. These symptoms can occur anywhere in the body.

Causes of Autoimmune diseases

The main causes of autoimmune diseases are unknown, however, there are many theories about the things that trigger autoimmune disease, that includes;

  • Virus or Bacteria
  • Drugs
  • Environmental irritants
  • Chemical processes
  • Family history of a specific autoimmune disease

Symptoms of autoimmune diseases

Due to the fact that there are quite many various type of autoimmune diseases, the symptoms may still vary from patient to patient. However, the most well known symptoms are fever, fatigue, and malaise. The most common host organs for autoimmune disease are;

  • Muscles
  • Joints
  • Skin
  • Red cells of blood
  • Blood vessels
  • Connective tissue
  • Endocrine glands


Diagnosis of Autoimmune diseases

Normally, our immune system works and produces antibodies named proteins that identify and destroy particular abnormalities as well as work against harmful bacteria in our body. these harmful invaders are;

  • Bacteria
  • Virus
  • Parasites
  • Fungi

When an individual is diagnosed with autoimmune disease, his body produces antibodies that work against the body’s normal function. There are a number of tests that can be done to make a proper diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. These tests include auto-antibody tests, antinuclear antibody tests, complete blood count, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Treatment options for autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases have no cure. So their treatment holds efforts to control the progression of the disease and to reduce the symptoms particularly flare-up of the disease. Following is the list that you ca follow to reduce the symptoms of autoimmune diseases:

  • Eat a healthy and well balanced diet
  • Do physical activity
  • Get plenty of rest
  • Take regular vitamin supplements
  • Reduces stress
  • Limited sun exposure
  • And avoiding any known cause of flare-ups

Medical treatment may include

  • Blood transfusions
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Medications for inflammation
  • Medications for pain
  • Immunosuppressive drug therapy
  • Physical therapy
Rheumatoid-Arthritis - Connective Tissue Disease

Facts about Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a type of connective tissue disease that causes chronic joint inflammation. This disease is a form of autoimmune diseases that occurs when your body’s own tissues attack their own immune system. Our immune system is comprised of complex arrangement of antibodies and cells that are designed casually to ‘seek and destroy’ any abnormal cell activity in the body.

Patients with connective tissue disease have some parts of their body affected. These parts connect the structures of the parts of body as connective tissues are consisted of two collagen, elastin and proteins. Among these collagen is form of protein that is found mostly in bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. Elastin is an elastic protein that is similar to a rubber band and is one of the major elements of skin and ligaments.

The Elastin and Collagen get inflamed when a person gets connective tissue disease while the parts of the body affect badly.

A chronic Condition with severe complications

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic condition which means it can take years to be treated properly. A person with RA may remain asymptomatic for longer periods of time.  However, rheumatoid Arthritis is commonly experienced as a progressive illness that can potentially cause remarkable functional disability and joint destruction over time.

Being one of the most common connective tissue diseases, RA is inherited. Immune cells attack and inflame the joints. This connective tissue disease can also affect lungs, eyes and heart. Women are more prone to diagnose with connective tissue disease or condition as compared to men as 70% of RA patients are women. The joint inflammation of RA causes significant swelling, redness, pain and stiffness in and around joints.

Signs and Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Connective Tissue Disease

People with connective tissue disease such as Rheumatoid Arthritis may not feel any symptoms for a longer period of time, however, when they feel, some of the most common symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are;

  • Joint pain in the hands, feet and knees
  • Tender joints
  • Swollen joints
  • Loss of joint functionality
  • Stiff joints
  • Fatigue
  • Rheumatoid nodules
  • Warmth in joints
  • Deformity of joints
  • Polyarthritis
  • Loss of joint range of motion
  • Limping

Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Connective Tissue Disease

There is no single test or assessment available to diagnose RA. The diagnosis is mostly based on the clinical staging. Eventually, rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed on the basis of a combination of presentation of the involved joints, characteristic of swelling of joints and joint stiffness in the morning, the presence of blood factors of RA,  citrulline antibody  as well as findings of rheumatoid nodules.

Certain blood tests and X-ray are obtained from patients. The final diagnosis is based on the pattern of symptoms, the division of joint inflammation and the findings of blood and X-ray findings. A patient has to visit his/her doctors for several times for a proper diagnosis.

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis as a Connective Tissue Disease

There is no well known cure or treatment for RA to date and the main goal of the treatment of RA is to reduce pain, inflammation and swelling of affected joints, maximize joint functionality and prevent deformity and destruction of joints. Early diagnosis and treatment has been shown to be significant in improving results.

Aggressive disease control and management could improve functionality, stop the process of joint damage as monitored on tests and X-rays and prevent job disability. Some of the Optimal RA treatment includes a combination of rest, exercise, joint strengthening, joint protection and patient education.

Treatment can be changed based on the diagnosis and severity of the condition, types of involved joints, general age and health and patient’s profession or occupation. Some of the most effective medicines used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are aspirin, cortisone, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine.

All these medicines promote remission of disease and prevent destruction of joints. Generally the functionality is improved and joint destruction and disability is improved when the illness if treated with second-line medicines particularly with early diagnosis.

Diet, Exercise, and Home Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

As a connective tissue disease, RA affects mostly women who are at significant risk of RA in the later stages of life. It is common that some “night-shade” foods like tomatoes could significantly aggravate RA but this claim lacks the supportive evidence.

However there are some home remedies that can prove to be effective. Some of these foods are salmons, fish oils, and omega-3 fatty acids supplements which have shown promise in some short term research studies in the domain of bone and joint diseases. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory properties of cur cumin which is an active ingredient in dietary turmeric may be quite beneficial for reducing symptoms and complications of RA.

Some supplements like calcium and vitamin D are also used to prevent risk of osteoporosis in patients with RA.  Folic Acid has also shown some promise in preventing drug related side effects of rheumatoid Arthritis. Moderate exercise must be included in daily routine however patients with RA should avoid harsh exercises that could potentially impact joints and aggravate pain and stiffness.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure also called Hypertension is a common condition in which pumping pressure of blood goes against your artery walls. You can have hypertension or High Blood Pressure without any symptoms for years. Undetected high blood pressure increases your risk of dangerous health problems, mostly heart attack and stroke. Hypertension or High Blood Pressure commonly develops in the course of many years.

High Blood Pressure Symptoms

Physicians generally call it a silent killer because Mostly people with Hypertension are asymptomatic and show no specific signs or symptoms, but a few cases with high blood pressure may have headache, nosebleeds, and shortness of breath. Sometime dizziness occurs, but until high blood pressure has reached its threatening stage. You need to check your blood pressure reading at least monthly.

High Blood pressure Causes

High blood pressure or Hypertension has many causes, first of all is age, the risk of hypertension increases with your age. About the age of 45, hypertension is more common. High blood pressure runs in generation to generation, so beware if you have a family history of hypertension. Obesity is a well known cause of hypertension, as much you have weight you need to supply oxygen to your tissues. People who are inactive and lazy have high risk; lack of physical activity can also increase the risk of overweight and become a patient of high blood pressure. People with a daily exercise routine can lower the risk. Tobacco and smoking raise your blood pressure immediately, and chemicals and tobacco can damage the artery walls. This can cause arteries to narrow. Too much use of sodium in your diet can cause your body cells retain fluid, so you need to use potassium, to balance the amount of sodium in your blood cells. Having the least amount of vitamin D can lead to hypertension, because the vitamin D effect on enzyme produces by your kidneys that affect your blood pressure level. Having heavy drinking can cause high blood pressure and heart attack later. High levels of stress and depression lead to hypertension temporary. Some conditions like kidney disease, diabetes, and pregnancy adds to high blood pressure, as well.

Treatment and care of High Blood pressure

People with High Blood Pressure should make lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet and getting physically active. Medications are given to treat people with High Blood Pressure however concentration of mostly relied on lifestyle modifications and possible moderate drug therapy.

Metabolic Syndrome

The metabolic syndrome refers to metabolic abnormalities with insulin resistance as its central component, is associated with a risk of CVD. A healthy diet and exercise can reduce body mass and lower blood pressure and improve lipid profile. Active and Healthy Life style of an individual can prevent Metabolic Syndrome. Only some obese people require specific treatment. As researchers and scientists proceed to understand Metabolic Syndrome, new therapies and treatments will be coming out and hopefully more effective than previous treatments of this dangerous condition.

Causes and symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome is not just a disease, but a group of disorders which you must be aware of from your early age because it does not show signs and symptoms until it gets hold of your body. . As we see in most individuals, there are some common behavioral alterations, episodes of depression are frequent. Some previous studies have suggested that people who have depression are in high risk for Metabolic Syndrome. High rate of depressive symptoms could also effected on treatment of mistreatment and prevention of Metabolic Syndrome can be important for the depressive patients.MS seems to have 3 categories, obesity, insulin resistance ,hepatic vascular origin that arbitrate specific modules of Metabolic Syndrome. Obesity causes hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and relatively high CVD risk. Many researchers and scientists argue that insulin resistance directly increases the risk of metabolic syndrome because it increases body fat content. More details can be found here.

Beyond these two factors, each one of them richly modulated by genetic variations. People with MS are at a great risk for CHD although women, who are under 50 years of age, appeared to be higher risk for CVD\CHD.

However metabolic syndrome is also a predictor of Diabetes according to many investigations. Most types of MS have no symptoms, although a large waist is a sign. Sometimes you might have signs of thirst and urination, blurred vision, ask your doctor whether you need any testing of syndrome.

What you need to do?

If you don`t make your lifestyle changes to control your insulin and cholesterol you may develop metabolic syndrome as a result. Your risk of Metabolic Syndrome increase with age, carrying too much body mass, had Diabetes, or if you ever had fatty liver disease and poly cystic syndrome.

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes certainly has a pronounced and devastating impact on family, friends and community. There are different factors relevant to diabetes that can cause depression and anxiety. On the individual basis, diagnosis of diabetes may cause some levels of grief and anxiety. For the family, long term health problem of the diabetic member of the family may trigger apprehension.  People with diabetes sometimes experience hypoglycemia which is a horrible experience for those with diabetes and the other family member who feel distress and disconcert. While a person diagnosed with diabetes may have less community relationships due to complications.

Type 2 Diabetes

As a chronic condition, type 2 diabetes affects the metabolizing of glucose (sugar) which is an imperative source of fuel.

Signs and symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly over time. However, some of the major symptoms to look for are;

  • Frequent urination and increased thirst due to excessive sugar build up in the bloodstream which pulls the fluid from the tissue.
  • Increased hunger caused by deletion of energy in organs and muscles due to no or little sugar into cells.
  • Fatigue; in response to deprivation of sugar to the cells.
  • Blurred vision due to pulled lenses of the eyes that is caused by too high sugar in the blood
  • Frequent infections and slow healing due to slow resistant to infections
  • Darkened skin due to insulin resistance.

Prevention, treatment and care

There are some healthy lifestyle choices that may help preventing type 2 diabetes. Diet and exercise are key tools for prevention. If a person has already had diabetes he/she can make some simple lifestyle changes can stop the progression of this disease. One should choose low fat foods with high fiber for example, whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Losing extra weight and getting physically active can improve overall well being. Type 2 diabetes can be managed by eating healthy, exercising regularly, getting insulin therapy and monitoring blood sugar. Possible treatment and drugs recommended to those with type 2 diabetes are;

  • Metformin: It improves the blood tissue sensitivity to insulin therefore the body uses insulin more effectively.
  • Sulfonylureas: Using these medications helps secreting more insulin. This group of medication is comprised of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride.
  • Meglitinides: These drugs also encourage the body to produce more insulin. They act faster and do not remain in the bloodstream for a longer time.
  • Thiazolidinediones: It makes body tissues sensitive to insulin.
  • DPP-4 inhibitors: It helps reduce blood sugar levels however it has a lower effect.